Arrays

Arrays are stored using Zend's internal hash tables, which can be accessed using the zend_hash_*() API. For every array that you want to create, you need a new hash table handle, which will be stored in the ht member of the zval.value container.

There's a whole API solely for the creation of arrays, which is extremely handy. To start a new array, you call array_init().
zval *new_array;

MAKE_STD_ZVAL(new_array);

array_init(new_array);
array_init() always returns SUCCESS.

To add new elements to the array, you can use numerous functions, depending on what you want to do. Table 33-1, Table 33-2 and Table 33-3 describe these functions. All functions return FAILURE on failure and SUCCESS on success.

Table 33-1. Zend's API for Associative Arrays

FunctionDescription
add_assoc_long(zval *array, char *key, long n);() Adds an element of type long.
add_assoc_unset(zval *array, char *key);()Adds an unset element.
add_assoc_bool(zval *array, char *key, int b);() Adds a Boolean element.
add_assoc_resource(zval *array, char *key, int r);() Adds a resource to the array.
add_assoc_double(zval *array, char *key, double d);() Adds a floating-point value.
add_assoc_string(zval *array, char *key, char *str, int duplicate);() Adds a string to the array. The flag duplicate specifies whether the string contents have to be copied to Zend internal memory.
add_assoc_stringl(zval *array, char *key, char *str, uint length, int duplicate); () Adds a string with the desired length length to the array. Otherwise, behaves like add_assoc_string().
add_assoc_zval(zval *array, char *key, zval *value);()Adds a zval to the array. Useful for adding other arrays, objects, streams, etc...

Table 33-2. Zend's API for Indexed Arrays, Part 1

FunctionDescription
add_index_long(zval *array, uint idx, long n);()Adds an element of type long.
add_index_unset(zval *array, uint idx);()Adds an unset element.
add_index_bool(zval *array, uint idx, int b);()Adds a Boolean element.
add_index_resource(zval *array, uint idx, int r);()Adds a resource to the array.
add_index_double(zval *array, uint idx, double d);()Adds a floating-point value.
add_index_string(zval *array, uint idx, char *str, int duplicate);()Adds a string to the array. The flag duplicate specifies whether the string contents have to be copied to Zend internal memory.
add_index_stringl(zval *array, uint idx, char *str, uint length, int duplicate);()Adds a string with the desired length length to the array. This function is faster and binary-safe. Otherwise, behaves like add_index_string()().
add_index_zval(zval *array, uint idx, zval *value);()Adds a zval to the array. Useful for adding other arrays, objects, streams, etc...

Table 33-3. Zend's API for Indexed Arrays, Part 2

FunctionDescription
add_next_index_long(zval *array, long n);()Adds an element of type long.
add_next_index_unset(zval *array);()Adds an unset element.
add_next_index_bool(zval *array, int b);()Adds a Boolean element.
add_next_index_resource(zval *array, int r);()Adds a resource to the array.
add_next_index_double(zval *array, double d);()Adds a floating-point value.
add_next_index_string(zval *array, char *str, int duplicate);()Adds a string to the array. The flag duplicate specifies whether the string contents have to be copied to Zend internal memory.
add_next_index_stringl(zval *array, char *str, uint length, int duplicate);()Adds a string with the desired length length to the array. This function is faster and binary-safe. Otherwise, behaves like add_index_string()().
add_next_index_zval(zval *array, zval *value);()Adds a zval to the array. Useful for adding other arrays, objects, streams, etc...

All these functions provide a handy abstraction to Zend's internal hash API. Of course, you can also use the hash functions directly - for example, if you already have a zval container allocated that you want to insert into an array. This is done using zend_hash_update()() for associative arrays (see Example 33-3) and zend_hash_index_update() for indexed arrays (see Example 33-4):

Example 33-3. Adding an element to an associative array.

zval *new_array, *new_element;
char *key = "element_key";
      
MAKE_STD_ZVAL(new_array);
MAKE_STD_ZVAL(new_element);

array_init(new_array);

ZVAL_LONG(new_element, 10);

if(zend_hash_update(new_array->value.ht, key, strlen(key) + 1, (void *)&new_element, sizeof(zval *), NULL) == FAILURE)
{
    // do error handling here
}

Example 33-4. Adding an element to an indexed array.

zval *new_array, *new_element;
int key = 2;

MAKE_STD_ZVAL(new_array);
MAKE_STD_ZVAL(new_element);

array_init(new_array);

ZVAL_LONG(new_element, 10);

if(zend_hash_index_update(new_array->value.ht, key, (void *)&new_element, sizeof(zval *), NULL) == FAILURE)
{
    // do error handling here
}

To emulate the functionality of add_next_index_*(), you can use this:

zend_hash_next_index_insert(ht, zval **new_element, sizeof(zval *), NULL)

Note: To return arrays from a function, use array_init() and all following actions on the predefined variable return_value (given as argument to your exported function; see the earlier discussion of the call interface). You do not have to use MAKE_STD_ZVAL on this.

Tip: To avoid having to write new_array->value.ht every time, you can use HASH_OF(new_array), which is also recommended for compatibility and style reasons.


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